What Is Torque and How Is It Applied to the Motor

In basic physics, you may be used to considering linear forces, such as the force of gravity pulling an object down vertically, or the force exerted on the shopping cart when pushing an object. Torque is similar to a linear force, but when a linear force causes an object to move in a straight line, torque causes the object to rotate.

If you have ever opened a door, you can intuitively understand the torque. When you open the door, you apply a force on the side of the door furthest from the hinge. Because the door is rigid, the force acting at a certain distance from the rotation center (hinge) of the door will rotate and open the door. You can open the door by pushing the side of the door closest to the hinge, but as you know, it requires more force to open the door. This is because torque is reduced by reducing the distance between you and the center of rotation of the door.

The torque is calculated by multiplying the linear force and the distance applied by the force from the center of rotation. A typical example of torque is a wrench used on a nut. If you have a 20 cm long wrench, you push the wrench down with 2 kg force, and the torque on the nut is (20 cm x 2 kg =) 40 kg × 5 cm.

Typical torque example nuts that use a wrench to hold torque.

When we look at the motor, the calculation of torque is the same - a force multiplier

The only difference is that, unlike a wrench using a motor to apply force, the motor applies torque directly at the center of rotation, where a linear force is generated. The end of the arm. When considering the torque of the motor, you can imagine that the motor uses the arm to lift weights. The maximum weight that the motor can lift will be its maximum torque.

In a motor, torque is applied to the center of rotation to produce a linear force.

Motors designed to provide greater torque can exert greater force on other objects.

Why is torque important?

Torque, especially the design of systems with motors that provide the correct torque, is very important in a variety of applications.

Suppose you are building a robot. If you want to build a bigger robot, or a robot that can lift heavier objects, you need stronger motors that can provide greater torque to make the robot move. Take a look at the video below, which shows what happens if you build a robot without taking the time to calculate how much torque the motor needs to deliver.

For aircraft, the torque provided by the motor directly determines the maximum lift that the propeller can produce.

If you're building a car and want it to accelerate faster, you need more torque from the motor - in the vehicle, the force pushing it forward is (roughly) the torque of the engine divided by the radius of the tire.

Electric vehicles, such as Tesla Model s, are known for their rapid acceleration because their motors produce a lot of torque. This torque is directly converted into the large force exerted by the tire on the road surface. As taught in basic physics, applying more force to an object will make it accelerate faster.

Factors affecting rated torque of motor

When it comes to the maximum torque rating of the motor, there are three different but interrelated limiting reagents.

Mechanical properties of materials

The first is the mechanical properties of the materials involved. Different servo models are a good example of this design consideration.

Cheaper, lower torque servo systems use plastic gears, usually made of nylon. The low production cost of plastic gear makes the servo system of nylon gear cheaper to manufacture and cheaper to buy. Nylon gears are also lightweight compared to metal, which is an important consideration for robots or aircraft. However, if too much torque is applied to these nylon gears, they will break.

Servo systems with higher torque ratings have metal gears, so they can provide higher torque without breaking. The materials used in the motor structure play an important role in determining how much torque the motor can provide.

The motor is made of many materials, but the torque grade of the motor usually made of metal is higher than that of the motor made of nylon or other plastics.

Maximum voltage of motor

The second factor affecting the maximum torque of the motor is the maximum voltage accepted by the motor design. If you look at any servo specification page, you will find the rated torque for different voltages. Higher voltage gives the motor more power to provide higher torque. However, the motor and its driving circuit can only accept so much voltage before overheating and burning out. The maximum voltage acceptable to the motor, without failure factor, reaches its maximum rated torque.

The maximum voltage of the motor is given in the specifications provided by the manufacturer.

Heating capacity of motor

This enables us to understand the final limiting factor of the maximum torque of the motor. When motors work, they produce waste heat. The harder the motor works, the more heat it generates.

For most motors used in hobby projects, from DC motor, servo motor to stepping motor, waste heat can be simply radiated into the air There is no active cooling like you can find, such as electric cars. Therefore, the motor is limited by how much torque (and speed) without the risk of thermal failure.

What Is Torque and How Is It Applied to the Motor 1

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What Are the Motor Accessories
Motor accessoriesMotor accessories refer to the parts and components of the motor assembled in the motor manufacturer, which are the original parts of the motor. The parts and components replaced due to damage caused by improper use or wear are called motor accessories. Generally, the service life of accessories is not as long as that of original parts.1. Motor statorMotor stator is an important part of generator, starter and other motors. Stator is an important part of motor. The stator is composed of stator core, stator winding and base. The main function of stator is to generate rotating magnetic field, while the main function of rotor is to be cut by magnetic lines of force in rotating magnetic field to generate (output) current.2. Motor rotorThe motor rotor is also a rotating part of the motor. The motor is composed of rotor and stator. It is used to realize the conversion between electric energy and mechanical energy and between mechanical energy and electric energy. Motor rotor is divided into motor rotor and generator rotor.3. Stator windingThe stator winding can be divided into centralized and distributed types according to the winding shape and embedded wiring mode. The winding and embedding of centralized winding are relatively simple, but the efficiency is low and the operation performance is poor. At present, the vast majority of AC motor stators are distributed windings. According to different models, models and coil embedding process conditions, motors are designed with different winding types and specifications, so the technical parameters of windings are also different4. Motor housingMotor enclosure generally refers to the external enclosure of all electrical and motor equipment. The motor shell is the protective device of the motor, which is made of silicon steel sheet and other materials by stamping and drawing process. In addition, the rust prevention and plastic spraying process on the surface can well protect the internal equipment of the motor. Main functions: dustproof, noise proof and waterproof.5. End capThe end cover is a back cover installed behind the motor and other casings, commonly known as "end cover", which is mainly composed of cover body, bearing and brush blade. Whether the end cover is good or bad directly affects the quality of the motor. A good end cover mainly comes from its heart - brush blade. Its function is to drive the rotation of the rotor, which is the most critical part.6. Motor bladeThe fan blade of the motor is generally located at the tail of the motor and used for ventilation and cooling of the motor. It is mainly used at the tail of the AC motor or placed in the special ventilation duct of DC and high-voltage motors. The blades of explosion-proof motors are generally made of plastic.According to material classification: there are three kinds of motor blades, including plastic blades, cast aluminum blades and cast iron blades.7. BearingBearing is an important component in contemporary mechanical equipment. Its main function is to support the mechanical rotating body, reduce the friction coefficient during its movement, and ensure its rotation accuracy.Rolling bearing is generally composed of outer ring, inner ring, rolling element and cage. Strictly speaking, it is composed of outer ring, inner ring, rolling element, cage, seal and lubricating oil. It mainly has outer ring, inner ring and rolling element, which can be defined as rolling bearing. According to the shape of rolling element, rolling bearing is divided into ball bearing and roller bearing.
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