This Paper Analyzes the Working Principle of Linear Stepping Motor

Linear stepping motor can move in a straight line or move back and forth in a straight line. As the power source, the rotating motor needs the help of gear, cam mechanism, belt or steel wire to transform into linear motion. This paper mainly explains the working principle of linear stepping motor in detail. Firstly, it introduces the structure of linear stepping motor, secondly introduces the basic principle and working principle of linear stepping motor, and finally expounds its advantages and application.

Introduction to linear stepping motor

Linear stepper motor, or linear stepper motor, produces rotation by the interaction between the magnetic rotor core and the pulsed electromagnetic field generated by the stator. The linear stepper motor converts the rotating motion into linear motion in the motor.

Structure of linear stepping motor

As shown in the figure below, the rotary stepping motor drives the linear motion mechanism: floppy disk drive (FDD) head motion mechanism. The previous 3.5-inch FDD mechanism mostly used the screw mechanism in figure (a). Although the clearance is very small, the efficiency is low, so it is difficult to operate at high speed, but it is widely used because of its low price. The mechanism in figures (b), (c) and (d) is the use mode of 5.25 inch FDD, and the belt type in figure (c) is mostly used for the transmission cylinder drive of the printer. These linear conversion mechanisms can be replaced by the linear stepping motor in figure (E).

Compared with the rotary type, the linear stepping motor can directly move in a straight line and miniaturize the machine; Sensitive to load inertia; If the stroke is long, the air gap will be larger than that of the rotary type, resulting in problems such as reduced efficiency. When using, special attention should be paid to the convenient use and use environment.

Basic principle of linear stepping motor

A screw is meshed with the nut, and some method is taken to prevent the relative rotation of the screw and nut, so as to make the screw move axially. Generally speaking, there are two ways to realize this transformation. The first is to build a rotor with internal thread in the motor to realize linear motion by meshing the internal thread of the rotor with the screw. The second is to take the screw as the output shaft of the motor and mesh with the screw through an external drive nut outside the motor to realize linear motion. As a result, the design is greatly simplified, so that in many application fields, the linear stepping motor can be directly used for precise linear motion without installing external mechanical linkage.

Working principle of linear stepping motor (Sawyer as an example)

Linear stepping motor has three-phase VR type. Here is the operation principle of permanent magnet rotor: Sawyer principle. The following figure shows the working principle of linear stepping motor using Sawyer principle.

If the current is switched in the order of â‘ , â‘¡, â‘¢ and â‘£, the coil current is used to excite the two magnetic poles to produce opposite polarity, which is superimposed with the magnetic flux generated by the permanent magnet. The magnetic flux of one magnetic pole is added and the other is subtracted. When the magnetic flux generated by the winding is the same as that of the permanent magnet, the magnetic flux of the subtracted magnetic pole is zero, At this time, the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet returns to the other magnetic pole of the permanent magnet through the excitation magnetic pole in the same direction, through the two magnetic poles of the stator yoke and mover. â‘ , â‘¡, â‘¢ and â‘£ switch the excitation current in sequence, and the rotor moves 1 / 4 of the stator tooth pitch to the right each time. This is the working principle of Sawyer linear stepping motor.

Advantages of linear stepping motor (compared with traditional stepping motor)

(1) High speed responsiveness

Generally speaking, the dynamic response time of mechanical transmission parts is several orders of magnitude larger than that of electrical components. Because some mechanical transmission parts with large response time constant such as lead screw are cancelled in the system, the dynamic response performance of the whole closed-loop control system is greatly improved and the response is extremely sensitive and fast.

(2) High accuracy

Due to the cancellation of mechanical transmission mechanisms such as lead screw, the tracking error caused by the lag of transmission system during interpolation is reduced. Through the linear position detection feedback control, the positioning accuracy of the machine tool can be greatly improved.

(3) High transmission stiffness and stable thrust

"Direct drive" improves its transmission stiffness. At the same time, the layout of the linear motor can be arranged according to the shape structure of the guide rail of the machine tool and the stress condition when the workbench moves. It is usually designed to be evenly distributed and symmetrical to make its motion thrust stable.

(4) Fast speed and short acceleration and deceleration process

Linear motors were first mainly used in maglev trains (up to 500km / h). Now they are used in the feed drive of machine tools. Of course, there is no problem to meet the maximum feed speed of ultra-high speed cutting (up to 60 100M / min or higher). Due to the high-speed response of "zero transmission", the acceleration and deceleration process is greatly shortened, so that it can reach high speed instantly when starting and stop instantly when running at high speed. The acceleration can generally reach 2 10g (g = 9.8m / S2).

(5) Unlimited stroke length

By connecting the fixed parts of the linear stepping motor in series on the guide rail, the stroke length of the moving parts can be extended infinitely.

(6) Low noise during operation

Because the mechanical friction of transmission lead screw and other parts is eliminated, and the guide rail pair can adopt rolling guide rail or magnetic pad suspension guide rail (without mechanical contact), the motion noise is greatly reduced.

(7) High efficiency

Because there is no intermediate transmission link, the energy loss during mechanical friction is eliminated.

Application field of linear stepping motor

Linear stepping motor is widely used in many fields with high precision requirements, such as manufacturing, precision calibration, precision fluid measurement, accurate position movement and so on.

This Paper Analyzes the Working Principle of Linear Stepping Motor 1

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