The Key Factors Restricting the Development of High-power Charging in China Are That the Power Batte

If you can run 200 kilometers after charging for 5 minutes, the endurance anxiety of electric vehicle owners will be completely solved. In this cold winter, people who bought "electric dad" may be more eager to look forward to this day than anyone else. Fortunately, people in the industry have been working hard.

European and North American automobile manufacturers have been cooperating to develop and launch a faster automobile charging network, such as the 350 kW fast charging demonstrated by ABB in Switzerland in April this year, which claims an 8-minute battery life of 200 kilometers. However, Porsche has been better. Now, in cooperation with BMW, it has set up a set of fast charging piles with a prototype power of 450KW in its German automotive research institute, which is more than three times the power of Tesla super charging pile. It is officially declared that it can charge 100 kilometers in 3 minutes and 80% in 15 minutes.

China has also been calling for high-power fast charging. At present, some enterprises have carried out research and development of high-power fast charging technology, such as star charging and Wanma new energy, and developed fast charging products of 360kw and higher power. But at the same time, there is also a phenomenon that Chinese car enterprises are not as active and aggressive as those in Europe and the United States. What is the reason behind it?

High power fast charging is an inevitable trend. Europe and the United States have raised the flag of 350 kW or even 450 kW. Can China keep up with them? What is the stage of high-power charging in China? What are the constraints of its development?

The cost has doubled, the power battery can't keep up, and the cooling system is at risk

Whether it is necessary for China to keep up with the high-power charging of more than 350 kW depends on the development process of electric vehicles and the demand of the market. Yu Hongxi, manager of Beijing Bodian electric vehicle test department, told first electric that at present, the cost increase brought by the voltage platform rise of the whole vehicle and the voltage level rise of the power battery and the improvement of safety performance requirements are the key factors restricting the development and application of high-power charging.

First of all, for car users, of course, the shorter the charging time, the better, but at the same time, it means that the cost will increase exponentially. The charging power is actually the value obtained by multiplying the voltage and current. If the current is increased, the charging cable will become very thick. Therefore, generally speaking, the means to increase the power is to increase the voltage. Increasing the voltage will increase the voltage level of the parts and electrical parts of the whole vehicle, and the cost of the vehicle will double. In addition, all the corresponding requirements around the R & D, design, assembly and maintenance of power batteries should also be greatly improved in order to meet the needs of high-power charging. The voltage level of the existing power battery is about 400 V. if it is increased to 1000 V, the cost will actually increase several times.

The high cost will eventually be reflected in the price. You know, the price of Porsche 350kW charging car is very high, more than 10 million yuan. Yu Hongxi said frankly, "this is a real cost, not to say, this is a very realistic thing. You may technically be able to achieve a charging voltage of 1200 V or even 1500 V when you make a car, but who will buy your car if it sells for seven or eight million or even more than ten million?"

Secondly, if the voltage of the power battery is increased, the current output will increase accordingly, and the heating capacity of the charging cable will also increase. If the heating capacity is large, cooling measures should be taken. At present, the liquid cooling system is mainly used, that is, a cooling liquid circuit is laid on the charging cable, which is similar to the compressor of air conditioner. The compressor is installed in the charging cabinet, and then the liquid circuit is installed in the charging power supply. However, this brings a very prominent problem: once the cooling system fails, it will put users in an extremely dangerous situation. Yu Hongxi revealed that around April this year, a Porsche caught fire when charging in a 4S store in Europe because the cooling system failed.

Another point to consider is the interface and charging protocol between the charging system and the vehicle. When the charging power reaches more than 350 kW, the specification of its interface and charging protocol is another system, which takes time in terms of technical implementation.

Therefore, on the whole, the doubling of the cost and the security of the cooling system are the key factors restricting the development of high-power charging.

Five year commercial possibility is basically zero?

Although there are many constraints, the industry generally believes that high-power charging must be a trend in the future. Liu Yongdong, deputy director of the standardization center of China electricity Union, said that the high-power charging technology is a supplement to the existing charging technology route of version 2015. For a long time in the future, the high-power charging technology is the application demand under certain scenarios, will coexist with the existing charging technology route for a long time, and will not replace the existing charging technology.

So, if the technical difficulties are overcome, what is the possibility of commercial use?

Yu Hongxi pointed out that when the technology level of mass products such as automobiles is improved, the cost is reduced to a reasonable level, and the safety is guaranteed, this is the time point when they can really be put on the market for commercial use. He judged, "I personally think that raising the charging voltage or the charging voltage of power battery to such a high level is a medium and long-term development process, and the possibility of commercial use within five years is basically zero."

In this regard, Zhu Jianzhong, general manager of Xingxing charging Beijing company, said that the high-power equipment has actually met the requirements. The high-power charging equipment of Xingxing charging and Porsche supporting liquid cooling system has been offline, so the key is to see whether the power battery at the car end can reach the corresponding level. "In fact, the battery in Ningde era already has a 4C charging rate. It is used in a number of taxis for high-power charging, but we heard that the current is still limited due to domestic safety considerations. Therefore, it can be done from a technical point of view. As for whether it is commercial for five years or three years, in fact, we mainly reserve technology and knowledge first, which is equivalent to being in a dilemma In a wait-and-see state, we are also waiting for the two watersheds of 2020 and 2025. "

Liu Yongdong believes that high-power charging technology, as a systematic project, takes 2-3 years from the technology proposal to the completion of standard formulation. In order to apply the development plan of automobiles around 2020, it is necessary to pay close attention to the research, engineering practice and standard pre research of high-power charging technology.

Xingxing charging 500kW liquid cooling high power charging equipment

Standard setting car companies are not active, and State Grid and charging facility operators cannot entertain themselves

For the development stage of high-power charging, there have been undisclosed commercial applications abroad, such as high-power charging will be used in the maintenance and sample vehicle display in 4S stores, but it is still in the preliminary exploration stage in China. Although some charging facility operators have been able to achieve equipment of 350 kW and above, China has not issued specific standards, and the vehicle terminal has not been equipped with vehicle related systems. Why is that? Because there is a fundamental difference between China and foreign countries in the research and development of high-power technology and the formulation of standards.

In Europe and the United States, charging facilities are dominated by car enterprises in R & D, construction and operation. Most of the major shareholders behind some commercial charging facility operators are also car enterprises. For example, lonity charging network is jointly established by four automobile giants such as BMW, Mercedes, Ford and Volkswagen, and Tesla in the United States is also establishing charging facilities. Therefore, high-power charging is actually promoted by car enterprises, and the car and electric system are doing it together.

In China, at present, car companies do not have particularly high enthusiasm for the R & D and standard formulation of charging facilities, mainly because the State Grid and equipment manufacturers dominate, and the standard system of charging facilities is currently led by China Power Council. An industry insider told first electric that it seems that they are "entertaining themselves". No matter what your car needs, do it yourself. "For example, many charging facility operators in China are pushing 60kW and 120kw, but most cars in the market do not need such high charging power; In contrast, this situation does not exist in Europe and the United States, because car companies dominate.

On August 28, 2018, China Power Council signed a technical and standards cooperation agreement with Japan electric vehicle fast charger Association (chademo), which plans to jointly promote high-power charging technology, interaction technology between electric vehicles and power grid and international standards. Yu Hongxi revealed that at present, the charging interface mentioned earlier in China has basically existed, that is, the national standard from Japan, which is a plug-in and split interface design, and other work is still in progress. The original plan was to release the interface standard at the end of this year or early next year, but now it must be postponed. Because it is necessary to upgrade and match the whole vehicle system to raise the vehicle to the charging level of 350 kW, and there is no plan to make such a sample vehicle for a joint venture or independent brand in China, so the actual operation cannot be carried out in the test stage, and the test can only be carried out in a simulated experimental environment. Without actual combat, of course, there is no official declaration.

High power charging is not just a charging system, but should mainly serve the car. Only when there is demand for cars can the charging system have market space. If there is no demand for cars, R & D may be easy, but it will lose its original meaning. There is no effective communication and cooperation between car enterprises and charging equipment manufacturers, which has always been a problem in the industry. In this case, it is not easy to realize the idea of trying to keep up with foreign countries in promoting high-power charging. Yu Hongxi also called on car companies in the industry and companies in the charging facilities related industrial chain to work together to do a good job in the industry, so as to better comply with the development trend of high-power charging in the future.

The Key Factors Restricting the Development of High-power Charging in China Are That the Power Batte 1

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