How to Select Power Supply Transformer

Zeners are very crude references. It's not clear if you are actually asking about voltage references accurate to just a few ppm? ...or just voltage references accurate to /-10%?If you want to understand real voltage references then you should read up on devices such as the Intersil X60003 (my personal favorite) and the Analog Devices ADR4540. Both are low power devices

I've learned that most Zener diodes require something on the order to 20mA in reverse bias in order for Zener breakdown to take place. However, devices such as the LM431 "Adjustable Zener" can begin regulating at as little as 0.4mA. I understand that the LM431 is basically a non-inverting op-amp with a reference (nowhere close to a passive Zener diode). How are low-power fixed voltage references established?

Edit 2017-06-23:

To clarify, I would like to know how a reference voltage can be generated inside of an IC such as the LM431. I'm mainly interested in the general design techniques used to generate reference voltages in linear/switching regulators, comparators, op-amps, supply supervisors, etc.

I have seen multiple "textbook" regulator designs, but many of them are designed for discrete implementation, and they generally use a Zener or a forward-biased diode to generate a semi-stable reference voltage connected to the output via negative feedback.

·OTHER ANSWER:

I've learned that most Zener diodes require something on the order to 20mA in reverse bias in order for Zener breakdown to take place. However, devices such as the LM431 "Adjustable Zener" can begin regulating at as little as 0.4mA. I understand that the LM431 is basically a non-inverting op-amp with a reference (nowhere close to a passive Zener diode). How are low-power fixed voltage references established?

Edit 2017-06-23:

To clarify, I would like to know how a reference voltage can be generated inside of an IC such as the LM431. I'm mainly interested in the general design techniques used to generate reference voltages in linear/switching regulators, comparators, op-amps, supply supervisors, etc.

I have seen multiple "textbook" regulator designs, but many of them are designed for discrete implementation, and they generally use a Zener or a forward-biased diode to generate a semi-stable reference voltage connected to the output via negative feedback.

How to Select Power Supply Transformer 1

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