201 Liquid Crystal Display Module and Its Application

key word:

HY-240128M-201, LCD

introduction

According to different display modes and contents, LCD modules commonly used in instruments and meters include pen segment type and dot matrix type. The former can be used to display a limited number of simple symbols, and the control is also relatively simple. The latter can be divided into two types: character LCD module and graphic LCD module. The dot matrix LCD module displays a lot of information, which can display characters, Chinese characters, graphics and curves, and is easy to interface with the microprocessor. Therefore, it is often used to display the working parameters of the equipment in the mechanical equipment control and automatic production line, or to display the working process of the equipment and production line in a graphical way.

From the perspective of practical application, after briefly introducing the composition and working principle of HY-240128M-201 graphic dot matrix liquid crystal display module based on T6963C controller, this paper focuses on the application method of this liquid crystal display module, and gives the idea and design points of software / hardware design with atmega8535 single chip microcomputer.

Fig. 1 circuit diagram of interface between HY-240128M-201 and atmega8535 single chip microcomputer

Introduction to LCD module

HY-240128M-201 is launched by Beijing Baldwin Electronic Technology Co., Ltd × 128 dot matrix LCD module. Although the working principle of the internal circuit of the LCD module is complex, the display module only leaves one interface to communicate with the outside. LCM can receive display commands and data through this interface and display them according to the requirements of commands and data; The external circuit also reads out the working state and display data of the display module through this interface. Users only need to understand the function of LCM external pins and the display principle of the module. This LCM provides two interfaces: parallel and serial data transmission command interface. 8-bit transmission is adopted in parallel mode, that is, 8-bit commands or data are transmitted at one time; The serial mode adopts 4-bit data bus transmission. In order to make the LCD module have more stable display, parallel transmission mode is often used in practical application.

HY-240128M-201 LCD module mainly consists of one LCM controller T6963C, two row drivers t6a40, three column drivers t6a39, one 8KB display memory 6264 and one 240 × 128 dot matrix LCD. 6a40 is a 68 channel line driver matched with T6963C. It converts the serial signal from T6963C into parallel signal to drive the corresponding line on the LCD. This module has 128 rows of dot matrix, so two t6a40 are used, of which the second uses only 60 channels. T6a39 is an 80 channel column driver matched with T6963C. It converts the serial column signal from T6963C into parallel signal to drive the corresponding column on the LCD. HY-240128M-201 has 240 lattice arrays, so three t6a39 are used.

Interface and control between MCU and LCD module

Since the T6963C interface is applicable to 8080 series and Z80 series MPU, the / RD and / WR of 8031 can be directly used as the read and write control signals of the LCD module. The VDD of the LCD module is connected with 5V voltage and / reset is connected with RC reset circuit/ The CE signal can be generated by address line decoding. The C / D signal is provided by a pin a * in the address line, and a * = 1 is the address of the instruction port; A * = 0 is the data port address. The indirect control mode indirectly realizes the control of the LCD module through the I / O parallel interface of MPU according to the timing of the analog module. This access mode does not occupy the memory space of CPU, its interface circuit is independent of timing, and its timing is completely realized by software programming.

Interface connection between LCM and atmega8535 single chip microcomputer

Because the bus read-write cycle of atmega8535 is 50ns, which is hundreds of times that of 51 Series MCU. For this kind of high-speed MPU, it is better to adopt the indirect mode, that is, to communicate with the LCD controller by simulating the timing of the LCD controller. Based on the strong practicability and simple interface mode of indirect method, the interface method between HY-240128M-201 LCM and atmega8535 single chip microcomputer in AVR series is given below, and the circuit is shown in Figure 1.

LCM power supply circuit

HY-240128M-201 requires three power supplies: logic power supply, driving power supply and backlight power supply. The logic power supply is provided through VSS and VDD pins; The driving power supply is provided through V0 and Vee; Backlight power is provided through Leda and ledk.

VSS and ledk can be directly grounded, Vdd and Leda can be grounded to 5V; V0 is grounded through the potentiometer and Vee is connected to the sliding terminal to adjust the driving voltage. When the driving voltage is too low, there is no display on the screen, and when it is too high, the screen is completely black. Note that the maximum resistance of potentiometer should be between 10kw-20kw.

Reset circuit of LCM

The reset pin is 16 - / rst. It is in the normal state at high level and in the reset state at low level. It clears the row and column counters and display registers. The reset circuit part can be connected to 5V through 4.7KW resistance and 4.7 to ground μ It can also be directly connected with the I / O port of the single chip microcomputer and controlled by software. Note that the reset can be realized only when the / RST pin remains low for 5 clock cycles after LCM is powered on.

LCM command control interface

HY-240128M-201 LCM external panel provides 5 command interfaces, 15 pin (/ CE) is the enable signal terminal, and the low level is effective; Pin 4 (C / D) is the channel selection signal, 1 is the command channel and 0 is the data channel. At the same time, the command and data can be read and written by controlling the input signals of / RD and / WR.

LCM font selection

18 pin FS is used to select font. T6963C stipulates that this pin is at low level and the font is 8 × 8 dot matrix form, otherwise it is 8 × 6 dot matrix form. Note that this pin cannot be suspended if the font used is 8 × 8, you can ground this pin or connect the I / O pin of MPU and set the display font through software.

Control software design

The software is developed with iccavr-c language. It has strong software control ability, that is, the main control CPU writes instructions to the LCD module through the interface to realize module control. The program design mainly includes two parts. One is to design general subroutines such as LCD reading and writing instructions or data, initialization and screen cleaning. The initialization setting mainly includes the following aspects: setting the respective head address and area width of text display buffer, graphic display buffer and cgram area, setting LCM working mode and display mode, and selecting cursor shape. The other part is the display module program of Chinese characters and graphics. The display operation is to write the dot matrix information of the characters or graphics to be displayed into the specified position in the display buffer. The content to be displayed is determined by the display mode setting part in initialization. With a general subroutine, various display programs can be constructed. When the graphic display mode is adopted, it is similar to the principle of character, Chinese character and menu graphic display. The key lies in the establishment of font library. Special Chinese character graphic dot matrix information extraction software (such as zimo21 or image2lcd) can be downloaded on the Internet, which can extract 8 × 16 or 16 × 16 and other dot matrix information in assembly or C language, as well as dot matrix data of various pictures. When atmega8535 single chip microcomputer is used to control the LCD module, because it is an indirect access mode, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the read / write operation timing.

T6963C controller timing

When the data instruction setting bit C / D is high, the enable bit / CE is low, the write status bit / WR is high and the read status bit / RD is low, the status of the internal controller can be read from the parallel data port.

When the data instruction setting bit C / D is high, the enable bit / CE is low, the write status bit / WR is low, and the read status bit / RD is high, you can write instructions to the internal controller through the parallel data port.

When the data instruction setting bit C / D is low, the enable bit / CE is low, the write status bit / WR is low and the read status bit / RD is high, data can be written to the internal controller through the parallel data port.

Design a general subroutine for LCD reading and writing instructions or data

Lcd status detection subfunction

Before writing data or commands, check the status of LCM first, that is, the command ready (sta0) and data ready (STA1) in the status register need to be checked at the same time. Only when these two bits are "1" (LCM idle state) at the same time can write data and commands. Normally, a read state subfunction can be designed to judge the empty / busy state of the two flag bits.

Display sub functions of characters and graphics

The display mode of LCD includes text and graphic display. When the graphic display mode is adopted, the management unit of LCD display information is 8 × 1 dot matrix, called a graphic display unit. According to this unit, T6963C divides the LCD screen into 20 columns in the horizontal direction and 128 rows in the vertical direction, a total of 20 × 128 graphic display units, and each graphic display unit corresponds to a storage unit in the graphic display buffer. When the lattice state information is written into the storage unit, the graph is displayed at the corresponding position. When the text display mode is adopted, the dot matrix status information is not written to the text display buffer, but the character code, and its dot matrix status information (8 × 8) , that is, the font is stored in cgram. After writing the character code into the text display buffer, T6963C takes out the lattice state information of the character corresponding to the character code from cgram, and drives the LCD to display the character through the row and column driver.

Screen cleaner function

Before displaying data, first clear the last displayed content on the screen. To do this, you need to use the screen clearing function. You only need to write "0" to the whole screen. The specific process is omitted.

Precautions for debugging LCD module

Precautions in circuit design

The liquid crystal driving voltage of HY-240128M-201 is as high as - 19v. Once it is wrongly connected to other pins, the driving and control chips in the liquid crystal module will be burned in a short time. Therefore, before power on, it is necessary to repeatedly confirm that the power lines are connected correctly. It is best to connect the driving power supply with the liquid crystal module through an electric level.

Pay attention to the correctness of the reset line level state. When the product is used in a good environment, the RC reset circuit provided in the pin definition can be directly used; However, when the product is used in a harsh environment, it is best to connect / RST to the port of MPU.

Commissioning precautions

Before the initial power on, slowly adjust the potentiometer so that the output of the driving power terminal is adjusted at about 0V, observe the display, monitor the LCD driving voltage, and then slowly adjust to the normal working point. During the adjustment process, do not make the LCD module bear the driving voltage exceeding the maximum value, otherwise the LCD module will be damaged. If the color change on the display screen is observed when it is lower than or approximately equal to the typical driving voltage, that is, the bottom color of the display field is slightly darker than the edge color, it indicates that the power supply of the LCD module is connected correctly and can work in the next step. If the color change on the display screen is not observed when it is adjusted to exceed the typical value of 2-3v at room temperature, it is not necessary to continue the adjustment.

Application of HY-240128M-201 in virtual simulation robot control system

The virtual simulation control system establishes the explosion Removal Robot and virtual environment model with 3d-max, and draws the simulation environment with OpenGL. The control panel controls the explosive disposal robot in the simulation environment to complete various training actions. The whole system is integrated into a control box, which includes a control panel, a display and an integrated PC. the host in the lower computer of the system first collects the analog data and digital data on the control panel to convert the operation of the buttons on the operation panel into control instructions, and then sends commands to the upper computer through the serial port every 50ms. After receiving the data, the upper computer controls the virtual simulation robot, Finally, the host computer collects virtual data

201 Liquid Crystal Display Module and Its Application 1

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